The most important site is the Prophet's (Sallallahu-alaihi-wassallam) Masjid, Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. The Masjid has very significant places such as the Rawdatul Jannah, the Minbar, Mukhallaqah column, Aisha (Radiallahu-anha) column, Abu Lubabah column and the Hujrah Al-Shareefah where Prophet (Sallal-lahu-alaihi-wassalam) is buried along with Abu Bakr and Umar (Radiallahu-anhum).
It has undergone a number extension and now can hold more than 600,000 worshippers. The masjid also houses a Library with thousands of books.
Adjacent to the Masjid is the Jannatul Baqi, the burial site of the family and companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu-alaihi-wassallam).
There are a number of other important and historic Masaajid in Madinah. Some of these include Masjid Quba, Masjid Jumah and the Masjid al-Qiblatain. The Masjid Quba was the first Masjid built by the Prophet (Sallallahu-aalihi-wassallam) in Madinah.
The Masjid Qiblatain is where Allah Tha'ala ordered the Prophet (Sallallahu-alaihi-wassallam) to turn his direction from the Masjid Aqsa in Jerusalem to the Holy Ka'aba while offering prayers. The Masjid Jumah is the place where the Prophet (Sallallahu-alaihi-wassallam) prayed the first Jumah Salaath.
At close distance from the city are the mountain and plain of Uhud where the famous battle took place. It is also the place where the burial ground of the 70 martyrs of the battle are located; the ground also has the grave of the Prophet's (Sallallahu-alaihi-wassallam) uncle Hamza (Radi-allahu-anhu).
Other places of significance include the battleground of Khandaq or the Trench and Masjid Meeqat. The Islamic University of Madinah is located in the outskirts of Madinah.
Visitors can relish cuisines from all around the world in Madinah. There are several Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Egyptian and Lebanese restaurants in the city. The streets around the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi are lined with shops and travelers can buy copies of the Holy Quran, prayer rugs, religious CD's, Tasbeeh and several souvenirs to carry home.
Before visiting Madinah, it is advisable to learn the etiquettes to be followed in visiting the religious and historic places in Madinah as well interacting with the Madinites, whose forefathers were Ansar & Muhajireen (Radiallahu-anhum)!